Concave Cutter / Branch Cutter
Often considered the next most important tool after shears, the concave cutter is specially designed to reduce scarring when removing unwanted branching from your Bonsai. Unlike with other tools where a reasonable substitute can be found, there isn't one for the concave cutter. The sharp edges on this cutter take a bute out of the tree, indenting the wound and forcing the trunk to heal over in a way that will minimize scarring.
Similar to the branch cutter, the knob cutter has a unique circular shape that when closed forms a crescent. This is particularly useful for trimming away undesirable knobs, branch cuttings and even tough roots. This is a very useful tool along with a good pair of shears. Depending on the calliper of the trunk, a knob cutter can cut further into the trunk, so that after healing, the trunk will return to it's intended taper and not reverse it.
Trunk splitters are mainly used to split thick branches that no longer can be bent. This carbon steel tool is made for the splitting of trunks or branches with precision, minimizing damage. The wide opening of the blades is designed tot provide you with enough clearance to achieve clean splits on your Bonsai.
It is important for the soil have good water retention while also draining well, along with very good aeration. The quality of the soil directly affects the health, size and growth of your tree. One of the worst things you can do to your tree is plant it in regular garden soil. Garden soil hardens when it drys and can often lead to a disadvantage when growing a Bonsai.
Soil mixtures can be purchased here, but given their weight and cost of shipping, you can also easily make your own.
Depending on the type of Bonsai you're growing, here are the general formulas for successful mixtures.
Deciduous Tree (Leafy and looses leafs in the fall)
10% Potting Compost
Coniferous Tree (Evergreen like Juniper, Cedar)
If you are not able to check on your Bonsai's moisture levels daily, add more Akadama to the mix.
Given how these soils erode over time, repotting every 2-3 years is required.
Here are some suitable replacements if you cannot find the recommended types of soil.
- Akadama - fine fired or baked clays, some even recommend cat litter as a substitute.
- Pumice - fine crushed aggregates, expanded shale and vermiculite.
- Lava Rock - This can be replaced with fine gravel or you can also look into purchasing a larger lava rock at a hardware or gardening centre and crushing it.
One of the best and easiest ways to fertilize your Bonsai, is to add a liquid fertilizer mix when water your Bonsai's once a month during the spring/summer. If your Bonsai looses leaves in the winter there is no need to fertilize it then. If you have a coniferous tree, fertilizing the tree once in the beginning of winter and once in the middle of winter should be sufficient.